Reinvestigating Consciousness-Raising Grammar Tasks and Noticing


This is a case study dealing with the relationship between consciousness-raising (CR) grammar tasks and noticing, replicating the work of Fotos (1993). Using only a reading and underlining task as a measure of noticing in order to successfully capture noticing as a complex cognitive process is inadequate because the way in which learners process target grammar structures can vary greatly depending on their level of awareness. Therefore, post-experimental stimulus-cued retrospective interviews were added to obtain both quantitative and qualitative detailed information on processing input. Nine post-secondary ESL learners who studied in a university preparation course participated in this study. Present and past counterfactual conditionals were chosen as target grammar structures. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: a direct CR group given a teacher-centered deductive lesson and an indirect CR group where the students learned the target structure inductively in a dyad style. Pre- and post-Grammatical Judgment Tests (GJTs) were also administered to assess the effectiveness of these two methods of instruction. One week after the treatment, each student engaged in a reading and underlining activity immediately followed by a retrospective interview. Although no quantitative difference was found between the two groups in noticing and GJT scores, qualitative data revealed that the learners processed the underlined target structures very differently.

Tamura, Y. (2015). Reinvestigating consciousness-raising grammar task and noticing. JABAET Journal, 19, 19–47.


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